Language Chart
Group (-3) Family (-2) Language (-1) Dialect (+1) Script(s) Region / Use
Albanian Albanian Albanian Gheq Latin north of and near the Shkumbin river
Tosk latin south of and near the Shkumbin river
Altaic Japanic (far from Europe)
Koreanic (far from Europe)
Mongolic Mongolian koine/common Mongolian Golden Horde
Khitan Khitan Khitan large, Khitan small dying language of the Kara-Khitan Khanate remnants
Tunguskic (far from Europe)
Turkic Arghu Khalai ? just moving to the Valley of Kabul, some Khalaj people joining the Mongols
Karluk Khorezmian ? Golden Horde
Uyghur (Old Turkic, not modern Uyghur) Old Turkic, Sogdian Xinjiang region
Kipchak Bashkir ? Bashkirs - southeast of Volga Bulgaria
Cuman Latin, Rovasiras Cuman/Kipchak Khanates
Fergana Kipchak ? Fergana Valley
Kipchak Latin, Rovasiras Cuman/Kipchak Khanates
Kumyk ? Kumyk plateau - on western coast of Caspian Sea north of Shirvan
Kyrgyz Old Turkic roughly present-day Kyrgyzstan
Tatar Arabic east of Volga Bulgaria
Oghur Bulgar Arabic, Orkhon Volga Bulgaria
Chuvash Arabic, Orkhon Volga Bulgaria
Khazar ? recently dead language of Khazars
Turkic Avar - dead language of Eurasian Avars
Oghuz Afshar ? Azerbaijan
Azerbaijani Arabic Azerbaijan
Ghuzz (Turkmen) Old Turkic ?
Khorasani ? ?
Pecheneg Latin, Rovasiras Cuman/Kipchak Khanates
Group (-3) Family (-2) Language (-1) Dialect (+1) Script(s) Region / Use
Altaic Turkic Oghuz Turkish (Old Anatolian Turkish) Arabic (predominantly), Greek Anatolia
Siberian (far from Europe)
Armenian Armenian Armenian Armenian Armenian Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Aryan Indic Dardic Kashmiri Sharada Kashmir
Pashayi - northern Ghur - just south of the Hindu Kush
Shina Devanagari Kashmir and northern Ghur - just south of the Hindu Kush
? ? ?
Romani-Domani Domani - ?
Lomavren - ?
Romani - ?
(other Indic Languages) (far from Europe)
Iranian Eastern Iranian Avestan Avestan, Pahlavi liturgical Zoroastrianism
Bactrian Greek, Manichaean -
Khwarezmian Aramaic Kwarazm
Pashto Aramaic Ghur
Scytho-Sarmatian (Ossetian) Greek central Caucasus - around the Bolshoi Zelenchuk river valley
Sogdian Sogdian, Manichaean Kwarazm, Transoxiana
Western Iranian Bactrian Parsi Arabic, Pahlavi Bactria - just north of the Hindu Kush
Baloch Arabic, Pahlavi Kirman, Makran
Kurdish Arabic, Pahlavi Jibal
Luri Arabic, Pahlavi Khuzistan
Persian (Parsik) Arabic, Pahlavi court dialect
Sogdian Parsi Arabic, Pahlavi Sogdia
Tabari (Mazanderani) Arabic, Pahlavi Mazandaran
Nuristani ? ? ? Hindu Kush
Group (-3) Family (-2) Language (-1) Dialect (+1) Script(s) Region / Use
Balto-Slavic Baltic Eastern Baltic Curonian ? between the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga
Latvian Latin (just starting) north of the Daugava River
Lithuanian Latin (starting soon) north of the Neman River
Selonian ? between the Latgalians and the Semigallians and the Lithuanians
Semigallian ? south of the Gulf of Riga
Western Baltic
Galindian ? south of and between the Prussians and the Yotvingians (Sudovians)
Prussian Latin south of the Baltic Sea and east of the Vistula River
Skalvian ? around the Neman River by the Baltic Sea
Sudovian (Yotvingian) ? between the Neman River and the Narew River and the Pregola River
Slavic
East Slavonic (Ruthenian) Belorussian Cyrillic ?
Russian Cyrillic ?
Ukrainian Cyrillic ?
South Slavonic Bulgarian Cyrillic ?
Old Church Slavonic Glagolitic ?
Serbian Latin ?
West Slavonic Czech Latin Bohemia, Moravia
Polish Latin ?
Slovak Latin ?
Sorbian (Wendish) Latin Lusatia, Rugen, Brandenburg, Pomerania
Basque Basque Basque ? ? northern Navarre and a little beyond
Berber Berber Berber Atlas Tamazight Arabic, Tifinagh ?
Kabyle Arabic, Tifinagh ?
Riffian Arabic, Tifinagh ?
Shawi Arabic, Tifinagh ?
Tashelhit Arabic, Tifinagh ?
Tuareg Tifinagh ?
Guanche Guanche Guanche ? Canary Islands
Group (-3) Family (-2) Language (-1) Dialect (+1) Script(s) Region / Use
Caucasic Northeastern Avar-Andic ? - ?
Avar Nuskhuri, Asomtavruli, Mkhedruli lingua franca for Avar-Andic and Tsezic languages
Dargi ? ? ?
Khinalug (Xinalug) Khinalug (Xinalug) ? ?
Lak Lak ? ?
Lezgic ? ? ?
Nakh Batsbi (Bats) ? ?
Chechen Nuskhuri, Asomtavruli, Mkhedruli ?
Ingush Nuskhuri, Asomtavruli, Mkhedruli ?
Tsezic (Didoic) ? - ?
Northwestern Abkhaz-Abaza (Abazgi) Abaza - ?
Abkhaz (Abxaz) - ?
Circassian (Cherkess) Adyghe (Adyge) - ?
Kabardian - ?
Ubykh Karacalar - ?
Ubykh - around Sochi
Celtic Celtic Brythonic Breton Latin Brittany
Cornish Latin Cornwall
Cumbric Latin northern England, Scottish lowlands
Welsh Latin Wales
Goidelic (Gaelic) Connacht Latin western Ireland
Galwegian Latin Kingdom of the Isles
Highland (Erse) Latin Scotland
Leinster Latin eastern Ireland
Manx Latin Isle of Mann
Munster Latin southern Ireland
Ulster Latin northern Ireland
Group (-3) Family (-2) Language (-1) Dialect (+1) Script(s) Region / Use
Egyptian Egyptian Coptic Akhmimic / Lycopolitan (Subakhmimic, Assiutic) Coptic some texts
Bohairic (Memphitic) Coptic dying out in Lower Egypt, new liturgical language for Coptic Orthodox Church
Fayyumic (Bashmuric) / Oxyrhynchite (Mesokemic) Coptic some texts
Sahidic (Thebaic) Coptic Upper Egypt, most texts, old liturgical language for Coptic Orthodox Church
Demotic Demotic Demotic old papyrus texts
Egyptian Archaic Egyptian Hieratic, Hieroglyphic ancient texts, tombs
Early Egyptian Hieratic, Hieroglyphic ancient texts, tombs
Late Egyptian Hieratic, Hieroglyphic ancient texts, tombs
Middle Egyptian Hieratic, Hieroglyphic ancient texts, tombs
Germanic Anglo-Saxon English East Midland Latin eastern England north of the Thames
Kentish Latin eastern England south of the Thames
Northern Latin northern England, Scottish lowlands
Southern Latin western England south of the Thames
West Midland Latin western England south of the Thames
German Dutch Brabantian Latin Brabant
Hollandic Latin Holland
Limburgish Latin ?
Low Saxon Latin ?
Zealandic Latin Flanders
East German Burgundic ? -
Crimean Gothic ? Gothia
Gothic Gothic House Bjornaer mysteries
Vandalic ? -
High German Bavarian Latin ?
Franconian Latin ?
Rhenish Latin ?
Swabian Latin ?
Swiss Latin ?
Yiddish (Judeo-German) Hebrew German Jews
Low German Flemish Latin Flanders
Frisian Latin Friesland
Pomeranian Latin ?
Saxon Latin ?, Burzenland, lingua franca for Baltic trade
Old Norse East Norse Danish Latin, Runic Denmark
Scanian Latin, Runic Scania
Swedish Latin, Runic Sweden
Gutnish Gutnish Latin, Runic Gotland
West Norse Faroese Latin, Runic Faroe Islands
Greenlandic Latin, Runic Greenland
Icelandic Latin, Runic Iceland
Norn Latin, Runic Caithness, Hebrides, Orkney, Shetland
Norwegian Latin, Runic Norway, a few isolated spots in eastern Britain
Group (-3) Family (-2) Language (-1) Dialect (+1) Script(s) Region / Use
Hellenic Greek Byzantine Greek Cappadocian Greek south-central Anatolia
koine/common/Demotic Greek Byzantine (Roman) Empire
Pontic Greek southeastern coast of Black Sea
Yevanic Hebrew Byzantine Jews
Classical Greek Aeolic Greek -
Attic Greek literature of Classical Greece, Biblical Greek
Doric / Tsakonian Greek small region in eastern Greece near Tyros
Ionic Greek -
Homeric Greek -
Koine Greek koine/common Greek -
Kartvelian Karto-Zan Georgian Georgian Nuskhuri, Asomtavruli, Mkhedruli Georgia (including Tskhumi)
Zan Laz Nuskhuri, Asomtavruli, Mkhedruli southwestern corner of Georgia
Mingrelian Nuskhuri, Asomtavruli, Mkhedruli coastal northwestern corner of Georgia (including Tskhumi)
Svan Svan Svan Nuskhuri, Asomtavruli, Mkhedruli northern edge of the northwestern corner of Georgia (near Dombai-Ulgen)
Group (-3) Family (-2) Language (-1) Dialect (+1) Script(s) Region / Use
Romance (Latinate) Balkan Romance Vlach Aromanian Latin Illyria, northern Greece
Romanian Latin Romanians
Island Romance Sardinian Campidanese Latin southern Sardinia
Logudorese-Nuorese Latin northern and central Sardinia
Italo-Romance Tuscan Corsican Latin Corsica
Sassarese Latin northwestern Sardinia
Tuscan Latin eastern coast of the Tirrenian north of Rome
Neapolitan Abruzzese Latin Abruzzo
Campano Latin Campania
Lucano Latin Calabria, Lucania
Molisano Latin small region between Abruzzo, Campania, and Puglia
Pugliese Latin Puglia
Sicilian Calabrese Latin most extreme end of Calabria
Salentino Latin most extreme end of Puglia
Siciliano Latin Sicily
Latin Latin Ecclesiastical Latin churches
Hermetic Latin Order of Hermes
Medieval Latin European scholars
Western Romance Dalmation Ragusan Latin southern Dalmatian coast
Vegliot Latin northern Dalmatian coast
Franco-Proven├žal Dauphinois Latin ?
Franc-Comptois Latin ?
Lyonnaise Latin ?
Piedmont Latin ?
Savoyard Latin ?
Valdotain Latin ?
Vaudois Latin ?
Langues d'Oil (French) Anglo-Norman Latin English nobility, Channel Islands
Bourguignon Latin Burgundy
Champenois Latin Champagne
Lorrain Latin Upper Lorraine
Norman Latin Normandy, eastern Brittany, western parts of Lower and Upper Lorraine
Orleanais Latin Ile de France, French nobility
Picard Latin northwestern France
Poitevin Latin Anjou, western Aquitaine
Walloon Latin Lower Lorraine
Latina (Mozarabic, Andalusi Romance) ? Arabic Al-Andalus
North Italian Emiliano-Romagnolo Latin western coast of the Adriatic north of Rome
Genoese (Ligurian) Latin thin Genoese coastline north of the Tirrenian
Lombard Latin Lombardy
Piedmontese Latin Piedmont
Veneto-Istriot Latin northeast, north of the Po river, including the northern coastline of the Adriatic, but not into the mountains
North Iberian Astur-Leonese Latin Leon
Galego-Portuguese Latin Galicia, Portugal
Navarro-Aragonese Latin western Aragon, southern Navarre
Castilian-Ladino Latin, Hebrew Castile, Iberian Jews
Occitan Auvergnat Latin eastern Aquitaine
Catalan Latin eastern Aragon, just spreading to the Balearic Islands
Gascon Latin Guyenne
Limousin Latin central Aquitaine
Provencal Latin Provence
Rhaetian Ladin Latin eastern Tyrol, Friuli
Romansh Latin western Tyrol
Sabir Eastern Latin lingua franca of the Mediterranean
Western Latin lingua franca of the Mediterranean
Group (-3) Family (-2) Language (-1) Dialect (+1) Script(s) Region / Use
Semitic Arabic
Arabic Andalusi Arabic Al-Andalus
Egyptian Arabic Egypt
Khaliji Arabic Arabia
Levantine Arabic eastern Mediterranean coast
Maghrebi Arabic north Africa west of Egypt
Maslawi Arabic Iraq, Jibal
Maltese Maltese Latin Malta
Aramaic Aramaic ? ? some Christians of the Jazira and northwest provinces
Syriac ? ? written and liturgical use by Nestorian and Jacobite Christians
Canaanite
Hebrew Ammonite ? -
Edomite Aramaic -
Hebrew Hebrew liturgical language of the Jews
Moabite Phoenician -
Phoenician Phoenician Phoenician -
Ethiopian
North Ethiopic Ge'ez Ge'ez liturgical and scholarly language of Ethiopian Christians
Tigre Ge'ez Eritrea
Tigrinya Ge'ez northern Ethiopia
South Ethiopic ? ? ?
South Arabian ? ? ? ?
Uralic Magyar Magyar Hungarian Latin Hungary
Transylvanian Latin transylvania
Finnic Finnish ? Latin Finnland, Sweden and Norway

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